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Plastoquinone is one of the electron acceptors associated with Photosystem II in photosynthesis. It accepts two electrons and is reduced to Plastoquinol and as such acts as an electron and energy carrier in the electron transport process.
In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, ferredoxin is the last electron acceptor thus reducing the enzyme NADP+ reductase. It accepts electrons produced from sunlight-excited chlorophyll and transfers them to the enzyme ferredoxin: NADP+ oxidoreductase EC 1.18.
When NADP+ and a suitable enzyme are present, two ferredoxin molecules, carrying one electron each, transfer two electrons to NADP+, which picks up a proton (i.e., a hydrogen ion) and becomes NADPH.
Ferredoxin is reduced (1) directly by a light-driven reaction; (2) indirectly by ATP-driven reversed electron transport; or (3) by dehydrogenation or oxidative decarboxylation reactions of intermediary metabolism not involving electron transport chains.
With chemical formula C8H8, cubane has carbon atoms at the corners of a cube and covalent bonds forming the edges. Most cubanes have more complicated structures, usually with nonequivalent vertices.
Population changes Between 1900 and 1930, close to a million Spaniards arrived from Spain. Since 1959, over a million Cubans have left the island, primarily to Miami, Florida, where a vocal, well-educated and economically successful exile community exists (Cuban-American lobby).
The European heritage of Cubans comes primarily from one source: the Spaniards (including Canarians, Asturians, Catalans, Galicians and Castilians). The native white population are nearly all descendants of the Spaniards and most non-white Cubans also have Spanish ancestry.
Cubane (C8H8) is a synthetic hydrocarbon molecule that consists of eight carbon atoms arranged at the corners of a cube, with one hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. It is the simplest hydrocarbon with octahedral symmetry.
Cyclooctatetraene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. It is a cyclical system consisting of 8 carbon atoms with four alternating single and double bonds, which implies that it has two distinct C-C bond lengths.
Adhesives that bond well to polystyrene include:
Styrene is primarily a synthetic chemical. It is also known as vinylbenzene, ethenylbenzene, cinnamene, or phenylethylene. It’s a colorless liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell.
The colourless liquid evaporates easily, and can be fatal if inhaled or ingested in high quantities. High exposure can cause coma and pulmonary edema (chest swelling) while low and moderate exposure can result in burning sensation, skin irritation and affect the nervous system.
“Breathlessness, respiratory problems, irritation in eyes, indigestion, nausea, transient loss of consciousness, unsteady gait, giddiness are caused by exposure to it. In Visakhapatnam, the styrene gas leak caused acute breathlessness among many people, a few of whom asphyxiated to death.
According to the Atlanta-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the health effects due to inhalation of styrene gas include tiredness, feeling drunk, slowed reaction time, concentration problems, balance problems and changes in colour vision.
At 700 ppm, styrene gas becomes immediately dangerous to life and health. Styrene gas’s effects on the brain include a feeling of drunkenness, changes in colour vision, tiredness, confusion, and problems maintaining balance. The possible cause of death in animals and humans is possibly asphyxia – oxygen deprivation.
Styrene is highly flammable and releases a poisonous gas when burnt. The gas can cause nausea and dizziness when inhaled, and experts say that person exposed to the gas should be given medical treatment immediately.
Health effects of styrene include irritation of the skin, eyes, and the upper respiratory tract. Acute exposure may also result in gastrointestinal effects. Provides an Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) document that includes acute toxicity data for styrene.
Mechanistic Studies: Exactly how styrene causes cancer is not fully understood, but styrene is converted, in laboratory animals and humans, to styrene–7,8–oxide, which is listed in the Report on Carcinogens as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.
Styrene is primarily used in the production of polystyrene plastics and resins. Chronic (long-term) exposure to styrene in humans results in effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as headache, fatigue, weakness, and depression, CSN dysfunction, hearing loss, and peripheral neuropathy.
Styrene), use a NIOSH approved respirator with an organic vapor cartridge. More protection is provided by a full facepiece respirator than by a half-mask respirator, and even greater protection is provided by a powered-air purifying respirator.