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Poverty in Somalia is rooted in civil conflict and limited resources, natural disasters and lack of an active central government. The conflict has emerged between clans for the two basic resources: food and water.
We argue that competition for resources and power, repression by the military regime and the colonial legacy are the background causes of the conflict. Politicised clan identity, the availability of weapons and the presence of a large number of unemployed youth have exacerbated the problem.
Somali Civil War
|Date||1991 (disputed) – present|
|Result||Ongoing conflict Fall of the Supreme Revolutionary Council Consolidation of states Conflict between radical Islamists and the government De facto independence of Somaliland New government formed in 2012|
Economic indicators According to the African Development Bank, Somalia is “characterized by a severe lack of basic economic and social statistics”. This situation has been exacerbated by the civil war and institutional collapse, although even prior to Somalia’s state failure, data was often unreliable.
Somalia is one of the few remaining frontier oil and gas exploration territories and the Somalian federal government is promoting its advancement by launching its first ever offshore licensing round.
Employment in Somalia The most important sector is agriculture, employing around 70% of the workforce, with livestock comprising approximately 40% of the country’s GDP. Other important industries are telecommunications and manufacturing.
Most agricultural employment takes place through livestock. Somalia is also a large exporter of bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts and rice. However, without consistent trade, much of this has gone to waste and has created a famine.
The Somali economy is reliant on several industries such as agriculture, construction, mining, and telecommunication.
Somalia, easternmost country of Africa, on the Horn of Africa. It extends from just south of the Equator northward to the Gulf of Aden and occupies an important geopolitical position between sub-Saharan Africa and the countries of Arabia and southwestern Asia.
African Union Mission to Somalia
|African Union Mission in Somalia|
|Active regions||Central and southern Somalia|
|Allies||Federal government of Somalia Ahlu Sunna Waljama’a (2007–18) Raskamboni movement|
American military intervention in Somalia (2007–present)
|American intervention in Somalia|
|600 personnel (Sept. 2020)||Al-Shabaab: 7,000-9,000 fighters (Dec 2017)|
|Casualties and losses|
The Security Council announced today its adoption of a resolution reauthorizing the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) until 31 December and maintaining its overall 19,626 uniformed personnel level ahead of the phased handover of responsibilities to Somali security forces, planned for later in 2021.
Successive Somali governments objected to the demarcation of the 1,000-mile border with Ethiopia, which was drawn by colonial powers. In 1964, the two countries fought a war over the Ogaden region of eastern Ethiopia, which is home to mainly ethnic Somalis.
Harar grew into a crossroads for commerce between Africa, India and the Middle East and was a gateway for the spread of Islam into the Horn of Africa. With its 110 mosques and 102 shrines, Harar is often referred to as the fourth-holiest city in Islam and known in Arabic as Madeenat-ul-Awliya (the City of Saints).
Ethiopian Semitic language